Molecular Cell Biology

Acknowledgments
About the Authors
Preface
Supplements
1. The Dynamic Cell
1.1. Evolution: At the Core of Molecular Change
1.2. The Molecules of Life
1.3. The Architecture of Cells
1.4. The Life Cycle of Cells
1.5. Cells into Tissues
1.6. Molecular Cell Biology: An Integrated View of Cells at Work
2. Chemical Foundations
2.1. Covalent Bonds
2.2. Noncovalent Bonds
2.3. Chemical Equilibrium
2.4. Biochemical Energetics
2.5. Activation Energy and Reaction Rate
References
3. Protein Structure and Function
3.1. Hierarchical Structure of Proteins
3.2. Folding, Modification, and Degradation of Proteins
3.3. Functional Design of Proteins
3.4. Membrane Proteins
3.5. Purifying, Detecting, and Characterizing Proteins
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4. Nucleic Acids, the Genetic Code, and the Synthesis of Macromolecules
4.1. Structure of Nucleic Acids
4.2. Synthesis of Biopolymers: Rules of Macromolecular Carpentry
4.3. Nucleic Acid Synthesis
4.4. The Three Roles of RNA in Protein Synthesis
4.5. Stepwise Formation of Proteins on Ribosomes
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5. Biomembranes and the Subcellular Organization of Eukaryotic Cells
5.1. Microscopy and Cell Architecture
5.2. Purification of Cells and Their Parts
5.3. Biomembranes: Structural Organization and Basic Functions
5.4. Organelles of the Eukaryotic Cell
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6. Manipulating Cells and Viruses in Culture
6.1. Growth of Microorganisms in Culture
6.2. Growth of Animal Cells in Culture
6.3. Viruses: Structure, Function, and Uses
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7. Recombinant DNA and Genomics
7.1. DNA Cloning with Plasmid Vectors
7.2. Constructing DNA Libraries with λ Phage and Other Cloning Vectors
7.3. Identifying, Analyzing, and Sequencing Cloned DNA
7.4. Bioinformatics
7.5. Analyzing Specific Nucleic Acids in Complex Mixtures
7.6. Producing High Levels of Proteins from Cloned cDNAs
7.7. Polymerase Chain Reaction: An Alternative to Cloning
7.8. DNA Microarrays: Analyzing Genome-Wide Expression
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8. Genetic Analysis in Cell Biology
8.1. Mutations: Types and Causes
8.2. Isolation and Analysis of Mutants
8.3. Genetic Mapping of Mutations
8.4. Molecular Cloning of Genes Defined by Mutations
8.5. Gene Replacement and Transgenic Animals
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9. Molecular Structure of Genes and Chromosomes
9.1. Molecular Definition of a Gene
9.2. Chromosomal Organization of Genes and Noncoding DNA
9.3. Mobile DNA
9.4. Functional Rearrangements in Chromosomal DNA
9.5. Organizing Cellular DNA into Chromosomes
9.6. Morphology and Functional Elements of Eukaryotic Chromosomes
9.7. Organelle DNAs
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10. Regulation of Transcription Initiation
10.1. Bacterial Gene Control: The Jacob-Monod Model
10.2. Bacterial Transcription Initiation
10.3. Eukaryotic Gene Control: Purposes and General Principles
10.4. Regulatory Sequences in Eukaryotic Protein-Coding Genes
10.5. Eukaryotic Transcription Activators and Repressors
10.6. RNA Polymerase II Transcription-Initiation Complex
10.7. Molecular Mechanisms of Eukaryotic Transcriptional Control
10.8. Other Transcription Systems
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11. RNA Processing, Nuclear Transport, and Post-Transcriptional Control
11.1. Transcription Termination
11.2. Processing of Eukaryotic mRNA
11.3. Regulation of mRNA Processing
11.4. Signal-Mediated Transport through Nuclear Pore Complexes
11.5. Other Mechanisms of Post-Transcriptional Control
11.6. Processing of rRNA and tRNA
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12. DNA Replication, Repair, and Recombination
12.1. General Features of Chromosomal Replication
12.2. The DNA Replication Machinery
12.3. The Role of Topoisomerases in DNA Replication
12.4. DNA Damage and Repair and Their Role in Carcinogenesis
12.5. Recombination between Homologous DNA Sites
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13. Regulation of the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
13.1. Overview of the Cell Cycle and Its Control
13.2. Biochemical Studies with Oocytes, Eggs, and Early Embryos
13.3. Genetic Studies with S. pombe
13.4. Molecular Mechanisms for Regulating Mitotic Events
13.5. Genetic Studies with S. cerevisiae
13.6. Cell-Cycle Control in Mammalian Cells
13.7. Checkpoints in Cell-Cycle Regulation
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14. Gene Control in Development
14.1. Cell-Type Specification and Mating-Type Conversion in Yeast
14.2. Cell-Type Specification in Animals
14.3. Anteroposterior Specification during Embryogenesis
14.4. Specification of Floral-Organ Identity in Arabidopsis
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15. Transport across Cell Membranes
15.1. Diffusion of Small Molecules across Phospholipid Bilayers
15.2. Overview of Membrane Transport Proteins
15.3. Uniporter-Catalyzed Transport
15.4. Intracellular Ion Environment and Membrane Electric Potential
15.5. Active Transport by ATP-Powered Pumps
15.6. Cotransport by Symporters and Antiporters
15.7. Transport across Epithelia
15.8. Osmosis, Water Channels, and the Regulation of Cell Volume
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16. Cellular Energetics: Glycolysis, Aerobic Oxidation, and Photosynthesis
16.1. Oxidation of Glucose and Fatty Acids to CO2
16.2. Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
16.3. Photosynthetic Stages and Light-Absorbing Pigments
16.4. Molecular Analysis of Photosystems
16.5. CO2 Metabolism during Photosynthesis
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17. Protein Sorting: Organelle Biogenesis and Protein Secretion
17.1. Synthesis and Targeting of Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Proteins
17.2. Synthesis and Targeting of Peroxisomal Proteins
17.3. Overview of the Secretory Pathway
17.4. Translocation of Secretory Proteins across the ER Membrane
17.5. Insertion of Membrane Proteins into the ER Membrane
17.6. Post-Translational Modifications and Quality Control in the Rough ER
17.7. Protein Glycosylation in the ER and Golgi Complex
17.8. Golgi and Post-Golgi Protein Sorting and Proteolytic Processing
17.9. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and the Sorting of Internalized Proteins
17.10. Molecular Mechanisms of Vesicular Traffic
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18. Cell Motility and Shape I: Microfilaments
18.1. The Actin Cytoskeleton
18.2. The Dynamics of Actin Assembly
18.3. Myosin: The Actin Motor Protein
18.4. Muscle: A Specialized Contractile Machine
18.5. Actin and Myosin in Nonmuscle Cells
18.6. Cell Locomotion
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19. Cell Motility and Shape II: Microtubules and Intermediate Filaments
19.1. Microtubule Structures
19.2. Microtubule Dynamics and Associated Proteins
19.3. Kinesin, Dynein, and Intracellular Transport
19.4. Cilia and Flagella: Structure and Movement
19.5. Microtubule Dynamics and Motor Proteins during Mitosis
19.6. Intermediate Filaments
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20. Cell-to-Cell Signaling: Hormones and Receptors
20.1. Overview of Extracellular Signaling
20.2. Identification and Purification of Cell-Surface Receptors
20.3. G Protein -Coupled Receptors and Their Effectors
20.4. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and Ras
20.5. MAP Kinase Pathways
20.6. Second Messengers
20.7. Interaction and Regulation of Signaling Pathways
20.8. From Plasma Membrane to Nucleus
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21. Nerve Cells
21.1. Overview of Neuron Structure and Function
21.2. The Action Potential and Conduction of Electric Impulses
21.3. Molecular Properties of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels
21.4. Neurotransmitters, Synapses, and Impulse Transmission
21.5. Neurotransmitter Receptors
21.6. Sensory Transduction
21.7. Learning and Memory
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22. Integrating Cells into Tissues
22.1. Cell-Cell Adhesion and Communication
22.2. Cell-Matrix Adhesion
22.3. Collagen: The Fibrous Proteins of the Matrix
22.4. Noncollagen Components of the Extracellular Matrix
22.5. The Dynamic Plant Cell Wall
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23. Cell Interactions in Development
23.1. Dorsoventral Patterning by TGFβ-Superfamily Proteins
23.2. Tissue Patterning by Hedgehog and Wingless
23.3. Molecular Mechanisms of Responses to Morphogens
23.4. Reciprocal and Lateral Inductive Interactions
23.5. Overview of Neuronal Outgrowth
23.6. Directional Control of Neuronal Outgrowth
23.7. Formation of Topographic Maps and Synapses
23.8. Cell Death and Its Regulation
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24. Cancer
24.1. Tumor Cells and the Onset of Cancer
24.2. Proto-Oncogenes and Tumor-Suppressor Genes
24.3. Oncogenic Mutations Affecting Cell Proliferation
24.4. Mutations Causing Loss of Cell-Cycle Control
24.5. Mutations Affecting Genome Stability
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Glossary

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